A considerable effort to monitor malnutrition rates over the past two decades shows that, despite some improvements, approximately half of the people are still malnourished. Much of the burden of deaths resulting from malnutrition, estimated to be over half of childhood deaths in developing countries, can be attributed to mild or moderate malnutrition. Several biological and social economic factors contribute to malnutrition. It is examined that the impact to access of basic environmental services such as water and sanitation basing on that people are stuned and underweight. It is identified that biological factors (such as child’s age and mother’s height) and social economic factors (such as household wealth and mother’s education) are important determinants of a child’s nutritional status. With respect to the environmental factors, it is detected that there are indeed significant externalities associated with access to water and sanitation at the community level. The external impacts at the community level of access to these services are an important determinant of the probability a child is underweight. The results also show that the external impact of access to water is larger for people living in rural areas.
- Social and economical issues